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2019-04-12 12:07:47来源:研究生考试网分享



France, which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for women. Its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runways.

The parliament also agreed to ban websites that “incite excessive thinness” by promoting extreme dieting.

Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starving themselves to death - as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape-measure they must use to determine their individual worth.

The bans, if fully enforced, would suggest to women (and many men) that they should not let others be arbiters of their beauty. And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to size zero or wasp-waist physiques.

The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep — and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mass could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.

The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement.

In contrast to France’s actions, Denmark’s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding the age, health, and other characteristics of models. The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states: “We are aware of and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people.’ The charter’s main tool of enforcement is to deny access for designers and modeling agencies to Copenhagen Fashion Week, which is run by the Danish Fashion Institute. But in general it relies on a name-and-shame method of compliance.

Relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. Even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.

21. According to the first paragraph, what would happen in France?

[A] Physical beauty would be redefined.

[B] New runways would be constructed.

[C] Websites about dieting would thrive.

[D] The fashion industry would decline.

【答案】 [A] Physical beauty would be redefined

【解析】 推断题。根据France定位到文章前两段,第1段讲法国决定时装业失去了定义(define)形体美(physical beauty)的绝对权力。法国的立法者通过了一项法律,雇用超瘦的模特属于犯罪,议会也禁止网站通过推崇极端节食“鼓动过度瘦弱”。第二段第二句提到“They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. 他们建议美丽不应该以伤害身体健康为代价的外表来界定。”由此可知,法国通过立法手段来改变法国时装业模特超瘦的现状,即[A]项的“形体美将会被重新定义”,是对原文内容的合理推断。[B]项“将会建造新的舞台”,[C]项“有关节食的网站将会兴起”,[D]项“时装业将会衰退”,均不能从文中推测出来,属于“无中生有”。

22. The phrase “impinging on” (Line 2, Para 2) is closest in meaning to____

[A] heightening the value of.

[B] indicating the state of.

[C] losing faith in.

[D] doing harm to.

【答案】 [D] doing harm to

【解析】猜词题。定位到第二段第二句“They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. 他们建议美丽不应该以 身体健康为代价的外表来界定。”impinging on后面的宾语为“health”,即对健康的某种影响。根据第二段第三句“对超瘦模特的禁令似乎不仅仅是在防止模特挨饿致死——正如曾有人这么做过的”,可见法国目前的对美丽的定义导致了有人为了保持身材,挨饿致死,因此推测出这一短语在这里的意思为“侵犯,伤害”,[D]项“对……有害”正确。[A]项“增强了……的价值”,[B]项“反映了……的状态”,[C]项“对……失去信心”均不符合句意。

23. Which of the following is true of the fashion industry?

[A] The French measures have already failed.

[B] New standards are being set in Denmark.

[C] Model are no longer under peer pressure.

[D] Its inherent problems are getting worse.

【答案】 [B] New Standards are being set in Denmark

【解析】细节题。根据第五段第二句话“In Denmark,...it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion... 在丹麦,它正尝试为模特设定自愿的标准……”,可知[B]项“在丹麦新的标准正在被设定”是对原文的同义替换。[A]项“法国的措施失败了”;[C]项“不再有来自同行执法的压力”,文章第五段第二句后半句提到“images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement”,属于“正反混淆”;[D]项“它固有的问题变得更严重了”,文中第五段只提及时装业有固有的问题,并未提及“变得更严重”,属于“无中生有”。

24. A designer is most likely to be rejected by CFW for ____

[A] setting a high age threshold for models.

[B] caring too much about models’ character.

[C] showing little concern for health factors.

[D] pursuing perfect physical conditions.

【答案】 [C] showing little concern for health factors


25. Which of the following may be the best title of the text?

[A] The Great Threats to the Fashion Industry

[B] Just Another Round of Struggle for Beauty

[C] A Dilemma for the Starving Models in France

[D] A Challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals

【答案】 [D] A challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals







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