Not long ago, a mysterious Christmas card dropped through our mail slot. The envelope was addressed to a man named Raoul, who, I was relatively certain, did not live with us. The envelope wash' t sealed, so I. opened it. The inside of the card was blank. Ed, my husband, explained that the card was both from and to the newspaper deliveryman. His name was apparently Raoul, and Raoul wanted a holiday tip. We were meant to put a check inside the card and then drop the envelope in the mail. When your services are rendered at 4 a. m. , you can' t simply hang around, like a hotel bellboy expecting a tip. You have to be direct.
So I wrote a nice holiday greeting to this man who, in my imagination, fires The New York Times from his bike aimed at our front door, casing more noise with mere newsprint than most people manage with sophisticated black market fireworks.
With a start, I realized that perhaps the reason for the 4 a.m. wake-up noise was not ordinary rudeness but carefully executed spite: I had not tipped Raoul in Christmases past. I honestly hadn't realized I was supposed to. This was the first time he'd used the card tactic. So I got out my checkbook. Somewhere along the line, holiday tipping went from an optional thank-you for a year of services to a Mafia-style protection racket (收取保护费的黑社会组织).
Several days later, I was bringing our garbage bins back from the curb when I noticed an envelope taped to one of the lids. The outside of the envelope said MICKEY. It had to be another tip request, this time from our garbage collector. Unlike Raoul, Mickey hadn't enclosed his own Christmas card from me. In a way, I appreciated the directness. "I know you don' t care how merry my Christmas is, and that' s fine, " the gesture said. "I want $ 30, or I'll‘forget' to empty your garbage bin some hot summer day. "
I put a check in the envelope and taped it back to the bin. The next morning, Ed noticed that the envelope was gone, though the trash hadn't yet been picked up: "Someone stole Mickey' s tip !" Ed was quite certain. He made me call the bank and cancel the check.
But Ed had been wrong. Two weeks later, Mickey left a letter from the bank on our steps. The letter informed Mickey that the check, which he had tried to cash, had been cancelled. The following Tuesday morning, when Ed saw a truck outside, he ran out with his wallet.“Are you Mickey?”
The man looked at him with scorn. "Mickey is the garbageman. I am the recycling. " Not only had Ed insul- ted this man by hinting that he was a garbageman, but he had obviously neglected to tip him. Ed ran back inside for more funds. Then he noticed that the driver of the truck had been watching the whole transaction. He peeled off an- other twenty and looked around, waving bills in the air. "Anyone else?"
Had we consulted the website of the Emily Post Institute, this embarrassing broach of etiquette (礼节) could have been avoided. Under "trash/recycling collectors" in the institute' s Holiday Tipping Guidelines, it says, " $10 to $30 each. " You may or may not wish to know that your pet groomer, hairdresser, mailman and UPS guy all expect a holiday tip.
51. The newspaper deliveryman put a blank card inside the envelope because __
A. he forgot to write a few words on it
B. he wanted the couple to send it back
C. he used it to ask for a Christmas tip
D.he was afraid of asking for a tip in person
52. From the passage, we learn that the author __
A. didn' t like Raoul' s way of delivering the paper
B. didn' t realize why Raoul delivered the paper that way
C. didn' t know that Raoul came very early in the morning
D. didn' t feel it necessary to meet Raoul when he came
53. According to the passage, the author felt __ to give Raoul a holiday tip.
54. Which of the following is CORRECT about Mickey, the garbage collector?
A. He wrote a letter to the couple afterwards.
B. He failed to collect the money from the bank.
C. He wanted the couple to send him a Christmas card.
D. He collected both the cheek and the garbage that day.
55. Ed's encounter with the recycling team shows that __
A. Ed was desperate to correct his mistake.
B. Ed only wanted to give money to Raoul.
C. Ed was unwilling to tip the truck driver.
D.Ed no longer wanted to give them money.
At 18, Ashanthi DeSilva of suburban Cleveland is a living symbol of one of the great intellectual achievements of the 20th century. Born with an extremely rare and usually fatal disorder that left her without a functioning immune system (the "bubble-boy disease", named after an earlier victim who was kept alive for years in a sterile plastictent), she was treated beginning in 1990 with a revolutionary new therapy that sought to correct the defect at its very
source, in the genes of her white blood cells. It worked. Although her last gene-therapy treatment was in 1992, she is completely healthy with normal immune function, according to one of the doctors who treated her, W. French Anderson of the University of Southern California. Researchers have long dreamed of treating diseases from hemophilia to cancer by replacing mutant genes with normal ones. And the dreaming may continue for decades more.
"there will be a gene-based treatment for essentially every disease, " Anderson says, "within 50 years. "
It' s not entirely clear why medicine has been so slow to build on Anderson' s early success. The National Insti- tutes of Health budget office estimates it will spend $ 432 million on gene-therapy research in 2005, and there is no shortage of promising leads. The therapeutic genes are usually delivered through viruses that don' t cause human disease. "The virus is sort of like a Trojan horse, " says Ronald Crystal of New York Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical College. "The cargo is the gene. "
At the University of Pennsylvania' s Abramson Cancer Center, immunologist Carl June recently treated HIV patients with a gene intended to help their cells resist the infection. At Cornell University. researchers are pursuing gene-based therapies for Parkinson' s disease and a rare hereditary disorder that destroys children" s brain cells. At Stanford University and the Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, researchers are trying to figure out bow to help pa- tients with hemophilia who today must inject themselves with expensive clotting drugs for life. Animal experiments have shown great promise.
But somehow, things get lost in the translation from laboratory to patient. In human trials of the hemophilia treatment, patients show a response at first, but it fades over time. And the field has still not recovered from the set- back it suffered in 1999, when Jesse Gelsinger, an 18-year-old with a rare metabolic disorder, died after receiving an experimental gene therapy at the University of Pennsylvania. Some experts worry that the field will be tarnished fur- ther if the next people to benefit are not patients but athletes seeking an edge. This summer, researchers at the Salk Institute in San Diego said they had created a "marathon mouse" by implanting a gene that enhances running ability;already, officials at the World Anti-Doping Agency are preparing to test athletes for signs of "gene doping". But the principle is the same, whether you' re trying to help a healthy runner run faster or allow a muscular-dystrophy patient to walk. "Everybody recognizes that gene therapy is a very good idea, " says Crystal. "And eventually it' s going to work. ""
56. The case of Ashanthi Desilva is mentioned in the text to
A. show the promise of gene-therapy
B. give an example of modern treatment for fatal diseases
C. introduce the achievement of Anderson and his team
D. explain how gene-based treatment works
57. Anderson' s early success has ____
A. greatly speeded the development of medicine
B. brought no immediate progress in the research of gene-therapy
C. promised a cure to every disease
D. made him a national hero
58. Which of the following is true according to the text?
A. Ashanthi needs to receive gene-therapy treatment constantly.
B. Despite the huge funding, gene researches have shown few promises.
C. Therapeutic genes are carded by harmless viruses.
D. Gene-doping is encouraged by world agencies to help athletes get better scores.
59. The word "tarnish" (line 4, paragraph 4) most probably means __
6O. From the text we can see that the author seems
Shortages of flu vaccine are nothing new in America, but this year' s is a whopper. Until last week, it appeared that 100 million Americans would have access to flu shots this fall. Then British authorities, concerned about quality-control problems at a production plant in Liverpool, barred all further shipments by the Chiron Corp. Overnight, the U. S. vaccine supply dwindled by nearly half and federal health officials found themselves making an unusual plea. Instead of beseeching us all to get vaccinated, they' re now urging most healthy people between the ages of 2 and 64 not to. "This reemphasizes the fragility of our vaccine supply, " says Dr. Martin Myers of the National Network for Immunization Information, "and the lack of redundancy in our system.
Why is such a basic health service so easily knocked out? Mainly because private companies have had little in. centive to pursue it. To create a single dose of flu vaccine, a manufacturer has to grow live virus in a 2-week-old fertilized chicken egg, then crack the egg, harvest the virus and extract the proteins used to provoke an immune response. Profit margins are narrow, demand is fickle and, because each year' s flu virus is different, any tettover vaccine goes to waste. As a result, the United States now has only two major suppliers ( Chiron and Aventis Pas- teur)--and when one of them runs inla trouble, there isn' t much the other can do about it. "A vaccine maker can" t just call up and order 40 million more fertilized eggs, " says Manon Cox, of Connecticut-based Protein Sciences Corp. "There' s a whole industry that' s scheduled to produce a certain number of eggs at a certain time. "
Sleeker technologies are now in the works, and experts are hoping that this year' s fiasco will speed the pace of innovation. The main challenge is to shift production from eggs into cell cultures--a medium already used to make most other vaccines. Flu vaccines are harder than most to produce this way, but several biotech companies are now pursuing this strategy, and one culture-based product ( Solvay Pharmaceuticals' Invivac) has been cleared for marketing in Europe.
For Americans, the immediate challenge is to make the most of a limited supply. The government estimates that 95 million people still qualify for shots under the voluntary restrictions announced last week. That' s nearly twice the number of doses that clinics will have on hand, but only 60 million Americans seek out shots in a normal year. In fact, many experts are hoping the shortage will serve as an awareness campaign--encouraging the people who really need a flu shot to get one.
61. Shortages of flue vaccine show that'
A. America relies too much cn foreign suppliers
B. the demand of flu vaccines is high this year
C. quality problem is a serious problem in flu vaccine production
D. the supply of flu vaccines is rather weak and America has no back-up measures to make it up
62. The word "cleared" ( Line 4, Paragraph 3) might mean
63. Private companies have little interest in producing flu vaccines because of _____
A. complicated process, high cost, low profit and high risk
B. shortages of fertilized chicken eggs
C. difficulty in growing live virus
D. fast changing of flu virus
64. From the last paragraph we can infer that _
A. the government hopes to solve the problem by way of volunteer restrictions
B. more than 47 million Americans who are qualified to get flu vaccine shots can not get them this year
C. America has to deal with a limited supply of flu vaccines this year
D. normally only a small percentage of American population gets flu vaccine shots each year
65. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?
A. All Americans are persuaded not to get vaccinated this year.
B. The big problem in innovating flu vaccine producing technique is how to grow virus in a new way.
C. More flu vaccines can not be produced in a short time because private companies refuse to produce more.
D. Flu vaccines are easier than most vaccines to produce through cell cultures.
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