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如何解析托福阅读事实信息题呢?

2016-12-22 14:12:55来源:坦途网资讯站分享
导读:如何解析托福阅读事实信息题呢?现在坦途托福考试网为大家讲解,想要在该项考试中提分的考生赶紧来这里学习吧。

在整个托福阅读的过程中,每篇文章的阅读时间规定为是20分钟。当然,除了文章外还有答题,对于很多人来说,这个时间还是非常紧张的。以下是坦途托福考试网整理的关于托福阅读事实信息题解析,供大家备考。

1、提问方式

Accordingto paragraphwhich of the following statements is true of / concerned with /related to X?

例:According toparagraph 1, what was true of the Sahara region around 6,000 B.C.? (TPO 28 Early Saharan Pastoralists)

Accordingto paragraphwhy / how / what.?

例:According to paragraph 1, why is playdifficult to define? (TPO30 Role of Play in Development)

分析:通过以上两种不同提问方式可以总结出该题型有以下几个特点:

1). 该题型是就某段话当中的某个细节信息(即提问方式1中的X)进行提问。

2). 该题型可以围绕该细节信息的不同方面进行提问,通过特殊疑问词which;what; why; how可以看出。

3). 由于题干中未出现infer;suggest; indicate等字样,所以该题型旨在考察文本信息的字面含义,无需考生进行文本的隐含意推理。

2、解题步骤

Step 1: 读题干,找出定位词

注意:如果是提问方式1, 那么定位词则是位于介词of/with/ to后面的信息。

如果是提问方式2, 那么定位词一般是名词,并且是非主题性的名词(当然定位词不一定只能找一个,一般可以找23个,因为定位词越多相对定位的位置也会越精确。)

例:

Accordingto paragraph 2, which of the following presents a particular challenge toresearchers who study play behavior in animals?(TPO30 Role of Play in Development)

分析:通过提问方式类似于第1种提问方式,其实题干可以改写成whichof the following statements is true of the challenge to researchers who… 因此,定位词应该是位于介词of后面的challenge toresearchers。至于后面的playbehavior就不需要了,因为它属于通篇的主题词。

Accordingto paragraph 4, how did the Catholic Church react to the introduction ofmechanical clocks? (TPO 30 The Inventionof Mechanical Clock)

分析:通过提问方式属于第2种提问方式,因此考生们应该在题干中找出名词部分,考生们可以看到两组名词:CatholicChurchMechanicalClocks, 并且这两组词都是我们所需要的定位词。

Paragraph5 answers which of the following questions about mechanical clocks. (TPO 30 The Invention of Mechanical Clock)

分析:通过题干找出题干中唯一疑似的定位词组Mechanical Clocks, 但是却发现整篇文章都在讨论MechanicalClocks。这种类型的提问方式是考生们最怕看到的,因为定位词无效。此刻建议考生们可以反过来先读选项,然后根据选项中的定位词回读段落寻找答案。

Step 2: 通过题干中定位词回原文进行定位。

注意:在定位的过程中考生们可能会遇到以下2个问题:

问题1:定位词在原文中可能是非原文原词(如果是专有名词一般在原文中就是原文原词,但如果是普通名词则有可能是非原文原词)

1:定位词为原文原词的情况

Paragraph 1: Evolutionary biologists believe thatspeciation, the formation of a new species, often begins when some kind ofphysical barrier arises and divides a population of a single species intoseparate subpopulations. Physical separation between subpopulations promotesthe formation of new species because once the members of one subpopulation canno longer mate with members of another subpopulation, they cannot exchangevariant genes that arise in one of the subpopulations. In the absences of geneflow between the subpopulations, genetic differences between the groups beginto accumulate. Eventually the subpopulations become so genetically distinctthat they cannot interbreed even if the physical barriers between them wereremoved. At this point the subpopulations have evolved into distinct species.This route to speciationis known as allopatry(alio-means different”,and patriameans homeland).(TPO31 Speciationin Geographically Isolated Populations)

Q: According to paragraph 1, allopatric speciation involveswhich of the following?

分析:此题干中的定位词为allopatric speciation, 为专有名词,在原文中为原文原词,即最后一句话为定位句。

问题2:定位词在原文中出现不止一次。

Paragraph 7: Occasionally, a sequence offossil-rich layers of rock permits a comprehensive look at one type of organismover a long period of time. For example, Peter Sheldon's studies of trilobites,a now extinct marine animal with a segmented body, offer a detailed glimpseinto three million years of evolution in one marine environment. In that study,each of eight different trilobite species was observed to undergo agradual change in the number of segments --- typically an increase of one ortwo segments over the whole time interval. No significant discontinuous wereobserved, leading Sheldon to conclude that environmental conditionswere quite stable during the period he examined. (TPO30 The Pace of Evolutionary Change)

According toparagraph 7, Peter Sheldons studies demonstrated which of the following abouttrilobites?

O They underwent gradual change over a longtime period

O They experienced a number of discontinuoustransitions during their history

O They remained unchanged during a long periodof environmental stability

O They evolved in ways that cannot be countedfor by either of the two competing theories.

分析:通过题干找出定位词Peter Sheldon & trilobites, 然后回读原文进行定位,考生们会发现这两组定位词在原文中分别出现2次。因此,考生们需要定位的范围变大,难度由此也加大了。这种类型的事实信息题是考生们在考场上最不愿意看到的一种,但是很不幸的是由最新的几套TPO中的例题显示这种类型的题目正在变多,所以朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家请各位考生平时在练习时加大这种类型的考题的练习。

Step3: 比较定位句与选项的内容,选出语义最接近的选项。

注意:

1). 考生们所看到的定位句可能是一个非常长的句子,而选项相对比较简短,所以考生们一定要学会从长难句中截取你所需要的能回答问题的部分。简单点说就是比如题干中问你why.;那么,此时考生们在分析原文定位句时应该重点看because这种能够解释的部分。

2). 考生们在比较定位句与选项时切忌不能随意推理,只需要把握文本的字面意思即可。

1

Paragraph 3: To what extent competition determines the composition of acommunity and the density of particular species has been the source ofconsiderable controversy. The problem is that competition ordinarily cannot beobserved directly but must be inferred from the spread or increase of onespecies and the concurrent reduction or disappearance of another species. TheRussian biologist G. F. Gause performed numerous two-species experimentsin the laboratory, in which one of the species became extinct when only asingle kind of resource was available. On the basis of these experiments and offield observations, the so-called law of competitive exclusion was formulated,according to which no two species can occupy the same niche. Numerousseeming exceptions to this law have since been found, but they can usually beexplained as cases in which the two species, even though competing for a majorjoint resource, did not really occupy exactly the same niche. (TPO 29 Competition)

Paragraph 3 supports the idea that Gauses experiments were importantbecause they

O provided a situation in whichcompetition could be removed from the interaction between two species

O showed that previous ideasabout the extent to which competition determines the composition of a communitywere completely mistaken

O helped establish thatcompetition will remove all but one species from any given ecological niche

O offered evidence thatcompetition between species is minimal when there is an overabundance of asingle food source

解题步骤:

1). 读题干,找出定位词Gauses experiments, 然后把握题目问的内容是有关于G的实验的importance

2). 通过定位词回到原文进行定位,位于第三句话。但是第三句只提到了定位词之一,接下来的第四句中提到了由此形成了一个law, 可以对应题干中想问的importance

3). 3句和第4句两句定位句的大意为“当只有一种食物来源被提供时,两种物种中的一种会消亡。参照这些实验和观察就形成了竞争互斥规律----没有哪两种物种可以占据同样的生态圈”,接下来浏览四个选项,发现C选项大意吻合----确定了竞争将会移除其他所有的物种在任何一个生态圈里面。

3、总结

1).此种题型必须要先阅读题干,摸清题干所问的具体内容,然后再读文章进行定位

2).此种题型既可以只考察某一个特定的定位句理解;同时也可以考察2-3个定位句范围的意群理解。但无论怎样,考生绝对不是漫无目的地搜索,而是根据题干有目的性地寻找答案。

温馨提示:因考试政策、内容不断变化与调整,坦途网提供的以上信息仅供参考,如有异议,请考生以权威部门公布的内容为准!

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