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职称英语考试理工类阅读理解练习(2)

2017-09-14 15:42:21来源:职称英语考试网分享
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El Nino 

While some forecasting methods had limited success predicting the 1997 El Nino a few months in advance1, the Columbia University researchers say their method can predict large El Nino events up to two years in advance. That would be good news for governments, farmers and others seeking to plan for the droughts and heavy rainfall that El Nino can produce in various parts of the world. 

Using a computer, the researchers matched sea-surface temperatures to later El Nino occurrences between 1980 and 2000 and were then able to anticipate El Nino events dating back to 1857, using prior sea-surface temperatures. The results were reported in the latest issue of the journal Nature. 

The researchers say their method is not perfect, but Bryan C. Weare, a meteorologist at the University of California. Davis, who was not involved in the work, said it “suggests2 El Nino is indeed predictable.” 

“This will probably convince others to search around more for even better methods,” said Weare. He added that the new method “makes it possible to predict El Nino at long lead times3.” Other models also use sea-surface temperatures, but they have not looked as far back because they need other data, which is only available for recent decades, Weare said. 

The ability to predict the warming and cooling of the Pacific is of immense importance4. The 1997 El Nino, for example, caused an estimated $20 billion in damage worldwide, offset by beneficial effects in other areas, said David Anderson, of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts in Reading, England. The 1877 El Nino, meanwhile, coincided with a failure of the Indian monsoon and a famine that killed perhaps 40 million in India and China, prompting the development of seasonal forecasting, Anderson said. 

When El Nino hit in 1991 and 1997, 200 million people were affected by flooding in China alone, according to a 2002 United Nations report. 

While predicting smaller El Nino events remains tricky, the ability to predict larger ones should be increased to at least a year if the new method is confirmed. 

El Nino tends to develop between April and June and reaches its peak between December and February. The warming tends to last between 9 and 12 months and occurs every two to seven years.

The new forecasting method does not predict any major El Nino events in the next two years, although a weak warming toward the end of this year is possible. 

词汇:EI Nino n.厄尔尼诺现象offset / 5C:fset / v.抵消equatorial / 7ekwE5tC:riEl / adj.赤道的lead / li:d / adj.领先的occurrence / E5kQrEns / n.发生monsoon / mCn5su:n / n.季风meteorologist / 7mi:tjE5rClEdVist / n.气象学家tricky / 5triki / adj.难以捉摸的注释: 

1.…methods had limited success predicting the 1997 EI Nino a few months in advance:predicting the 1997EI Nino a few months in advance是现在分词短语,进一步说明limited success的含义。 

2. suggests: suggest在文中的意思是“表明,显示出”。

3. at long lead times: lead的意思相当于in advance。at long lead times的意思是“在领先很长的一段时间里”。

4. of immense importance = immensely important 

练习: 

1. The method used by the Columbia University researchers can predict El Nino a few months in advance. A Right B Wrong C No mentioned 

2. The Columbia University researchers studied the relationship between the past EI Nino occurrences and sea-surface temperatures. A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 

3. The Columbia University researchers are the first to use sea-surface temperatures to match the past El Nino occurrences. 

A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 

4. Weare’s contribution in predicting El Nino, was highly praised by other meteorologists. A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 

5. According to a Chinese report, the flooding in China caused by El Nino in 1991 and 1997 affected 200 million 

Chinese people. 

A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 

6. It takes about eight months for El Nino to reach its peak.

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