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2019年GMAT考试OG阅读新题详细解读3

2019-01-11 14:12:29来源:GMAT考试网分享
导读:准备参加2019年GMAT考试的考生们,你们除了夯实基础之外,有没有配合着模拟题进行练习呢?今天是模拟题是小编精心准备的,希望在考前可以给大家提供一些帮助!

>>GMAT模拟题:2019年GMAT考试OG阅读新题详细解读3

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Line(1)Carotenoids, a family of natural pigments, form an important part of the colorful signals used by many animals. Animals acquire carotenoids either directly (from the plants and algae that produce (5) them) or indirectly (by eating insects) and store them in a variety of tissues. Studies of several animal species have shown that when choosing mates, females prefer males with brighter carotenoid-based coloration. Owens and Olson hypothesize that the (10) presence of carotenoids, as signaled by coloration, would be meaningful in the context of mate selection if carotenoids were either rare or required for health. The conventional view is that carotenoids are meaningful because they are rare: healthier (15) males can forage for more of the pigments than can their inferior counterparts. Although this may be true, there is growing evidence that carotenoids are meaningful also because they are required: they are used by the immune system and for detoxification (20) processes that are important for maintaining health. It may be that males can use scarce carotenoids either for immune defense and detoxification or for attracting females. Males that are more susceptible to disease and parasites will have to use their (25) carotenoids to boost their immune systems, whereas males that are genetically resistant will use fewer carotenoids for fighting disease and will advertise this by using the pigments for flashy display instead.

Questions 443–447 refer to the passage.

443.According to the “conventional view” referred to in line 13 of the passage, brighter carotenoid-based coloration in certain species suggests that an individual

1.lives in a habitat rich in carotenoid-bearing plants and insects

2.has efficient detoxification processes

3.has a superior immune system

4.possesses superior foraging capacity

5.is currently capable of reproducing

444.The idea that carotenoid-based coloration is significant partly because carotenoids are required for health suggests that a lack of bright coloration in a male is most likely to indicate which of the following?

1.Inefficient detoxification processes

2.Immunity to parasite infestation

3.Low genetic resistance to disease

4.Lack of interest in mating

5.Lack of carotenoid-storing tissues

445.The passage suggests that relatively bright carotenoidbased coloration is a signal of which of the following characteristics in males of certain animal species?

1.Readiness for mating behavior

2.Ability to fight

3.Particular feeding preferences

4.Recovery from parasite infestation

5.Fitness as a mate

446.The passage implies which of the following about the insects from which animals acquire carotenoids?

1.They do not produce carotenoids themselves.

2.They use carotenoids primarily for coloration.

3.They maintain constant levels of carotenoids in their tissues.

4.They are unable to use carotenoids to boost their immune system.

5.They are available in greater abundance than are carotenoid-bearing plants.

447.Information in the passage suggests that which of the following is true of carotenoids that a male animal uses for detoxification processes?

1.They were not acquired directly from plants and algae.

2.They cannot be replenished through foraging.

3.They cannot be used simultaneously to brighten coloration.

4.They do not affect the animal’s susceptibility to parasites.

5.They increase the chances that the animal will be selected as a mate.

解析:

文章大意:

Carotenoids是一种天然染料,动物有两种获取他的方式。雌性选择伴侣的时候更倾向于选择有brighter carotenoids-based coloration的伴侣。老观点认为Carotenoids重要是因为它的稀有性。但是O&O认为它重要是因为2个原因:稀有性和健康性。

基本文章结构:新老观点对比

文章结构图:

Carotenoids-pigment

Olson(New): C rare & required for health→C meaningful

↑immune, detoxification→√health

Old: C rare→C meaningful

题目分析

443.题干分析:

先明确问的是在老观点看来,有carotenoids-based染色说明什么。

那么直接可以定位文中老观点的内容:" The conventional view is that carotenoids aremeaningful because they are rare: healthier males can forage for more of the "

A: 无关选项

B: 这是新观点提及的概念,而非老观点

C:这是新观点提及的概念,而非老观点

D:√定位句说:" 由于carotenoids很稀少,越健康的雄性能找到越多的pigments "。由于在这篇文章中pigments就指代Carotenoids,所以如果一个雄性体内的carotenoids越多,就可以说明它搜寻能力更强。

E:无关选项

444. 题干分析:

问" coloration 重要是因为 carotenoids 是健康所需 " 这个观点表明如果缺乏它会怎样?

可以明确题干的观点属于新观点,然后就可以定位原文 "Males that are more susceptible to disease andparasites will have to use their carotenoids to boost their immune systems,whereas males that are genetically resistant will usefewer carotenoids for fighting disease and will advertise this byusing the pigments for flashy display instead.

"这意味着如果雄性更容易收到疾病攻击那么就要利用carotenoids,自然体内的coloration就少了;而如果是自身抵御能力较强的雄性,它们就不会使用那么多carotenoids来对抗疾病,那么体内的coloration水平就更高。

A:无关概念,题目没有提到detoxification的效率高低问题,也没有把它的效率和carotenoids的水平高低进行联系。

B:与分析答案方向相反,能够免疫疾病的动物应该体内carotenoids更多,因为它们不需要利用carotenoids来提抗疾病。

C:√由题干定位句分析可得:如果动物体内carotenoids较少,它们就是自身抵御疾病的能力较差,用掉了carotenoids来抵御疾病。

D:文章没有提到雄性对于伴侣的interest,只说了雌性对于它们的伴侣是否有兴趣

E:不在定位范围,且与文章信息不符。文章开头说所有动物都可以把carotenoids储存在不同的组织中。

445.题目问有bright carotenoid-based coloration的雄性有以下什么特点?定位原文第6行" Studies of severalanimal species have shown that when choosing mates, females prefermales with brighter carotenoid-based coloration. "

A:不在定位范围

B:不在定位范围

C:不在定位范围

D:不在定位范围

E:√fitness此处翻译为" 适当,适合"。文中说雌性更喜欢brightercarotenoid-based coloration的雄性,可以推得这样的雄性对于雌性来说更适合作为伴侣。

446.由于题干提问对象是给动物提供carotenoids的昆虫,文中只有段首第5行提到了昆虫,所以可以直接定位" acquire carotenoidseither directly (from the plants and algae that produce them) orindirectly (by eating insects) and store them in a variety of tissues. "

A:√原文说plants and algae是获取carotenoids的直接来源,它们可以产生carotenoids;那么根据定位句信息可以推断获取carotenoids的间接来源(即通过吃昆虫)一定是无法直接产出carotenoids的。

B:不在定位范围

C:不在定位范围

D:不在定位范围

E:不在定位范围

447.题目问的是用来解毒的carotenoids怎么样了?定位新观点:It may be that males can usescarce carotenoids either for immune defense and detoxification orfor attracting females.

A: 与文章信息不符,文章开头说了它可以直接从植物和藻类中获取。

B: 选项是传统老观点的内容,和题干分析不符

C:√重点关键词就是选项中的simultaneously,对应原文的either…or…。

D:

E: 原文中描述Carotenoids的作用有:免疫疾病和解毒,或者吸引异性。注意原文说的是" either or-或者 ",即如果把carotenoids用来解毒了,那就不能用来吸引异性了。

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